14 Steps to Install kubernetes on Ubuntu 18.04 and 16.04 (“hashicorp/bionic64”)
In this article on “14 Steps to Install kubernetes on Ubuntu 18.04 and 16.04” we are going to create Kubernetes cluster along with kubeadm on Ubuntu 18.04 (The same steps can be used for the Ubuntu 16.04 as well)
kubeadm is command line tool to interact with kubernetes cluster. Kubeadm relies on fast deployment feature of Docker and running the system services of kubernetes master and etcd server as container.
We are going to use two nodes
- Master node - Ubuntu 18.04
- Worker node - Ubuntu 18.04
- Reading time is about 20 minutes
- Vagrant 2.2.7 or latest - For installation instruction click here
- VM VirtualBox - For installation instruction click here
Step 1 - Start your vagrant box
As a minimum requirement for kubernetes installation we need -
- Master Node - 2 cpus, 2 GB Memory
- Worker Node - 1 cpu, 1 GB Memory
Use following Vagrantfile to spin up your vagrant box
1Vagrant.configure("2") do |config| 2 config.vm.define "master" do |master| 3 master.vm.box_download_insecure = true 4 master.vm.box = "hashicorp/bionic64" 5 master.vm.network "private_network", ip: "220.127.116.11" 6 master.vm.hostname = "master" 7 master.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |v| 8 v.name = "master" 9 v.memory = 2048 10 v.cpus = 2 11 end 12 end 13 14 config.vm.define "worker" do |worker| 15 worker.vm.box_download_insecure = true 16 worker.vm.box = "hashicorp/bionic64" 17 worker.vm.network "private_network", ip: "18.104.22.168" 18 worker.vm.hostname = "worker" 19 worker.vm.provider "virtualbox" do |v| 20 v.name = "worker" 21 v.memory = 1024 22 v.cpus = 1 23 end 24 end 25 26end
Step 2 - Update host files on both master and worker node
master node - SSH into the master node
1$ vagrant ssh master
Add host entry for master as well as worker node
1vagrant@master:~$ sudo vi /etc/hosts 2 322.214.171.124 master.jhooq.com master 4126.96.36.199 worker.jhooq.com worker
worker node - SSH into the master node
1$ vagrant ssh worker
Add host entry for master as well as worker node
1vagrant@worker:~$ sudo vi /etc/hosts 2 3188.8.131.52 master.jhooq.com master 4184.108.40.206 worker.jhooq.com worker
Test the worker node by sending from master
1vagrant@master ~]$ ping worker 2PING worker.jhooq.com (220.127.116.11) 56(84) bytes of data. 364 bytes from worker.jhooq.com (18.104.22.168): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.462 ms 464 bytes from worker.jhooq.com (22.214.171.124): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.686 ms
Test the master node by sending from worker
1vagrant@worker ~]$ ping master 2PING master.jhooq.com (126.96.36.199) 56(84) bytes of data. 364 bytes from master.jhooq.com (188.8.131.52): icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.238 ms 464 bytes from master.jhooq.com (184.108.40.206): icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.510 ms
Step 3 - Install Docker on both master and worker node
You need to install Docker on both the node.
So run the following installation command on both the nodes
1vagrant@master ~]$ sudo apt-get update 2 3vagrant@master ~]$ sudo apt install docker.io
Enable and start docker
1vagrant@master:~$ sudo systemctl enable docker 2Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/docker.service → /lib/systemd/system/docker.service. 3 4vagrant@master ~]$ sudo systemctl start docker
Check the docker service status
1vagrant@master ~]$ sudo systemctl status docker 2 3● docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine 4 Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/docker.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) 5 Active: active (running) since Thu 2020-04-23 19:10:59 UTC; 4s ago 6 Docs: https://docs.docker.com 7
Step 4 - Disable the firewall and turnoff the “swapping”
We need to disable firewall as well as swapping on master as well as worker node. Because to install kubernetes we need to disable the swapping on both the nodes
1vagrant@worker:~$ sudo ufw disable 2Firewall stopped and disabled on system startup 3 4vagrant@worker ~]$ sudo swapoff -a
Step 5 - Install “apt-transport-https” package
To download the kubernetes and its public we need to install “apt-transport-https” package on both master as well as worker node
1vagrant@master:~$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https
Step 6 - Download the public keys
We need to have the public keys for accessing packages on Google Cloud.
So run the following command to get the public keys on both master as well as worker node
1vagrant@worker:~$ curl -s https://packages.cloud.google.com/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo apt-key add - 2OK
Step 7 - Add kubernetes repo
As a next step we need to add the kubernetes repo to both master as well as worker node
1vagrant@worker:~$ sudo bash -c 'echo "deb http://apt.kubernetes.io/ kubernetes-xenial main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list'
Step 8 - Install kubernetes
Now after adding the kubernetes repo we need to install the kubernetes on both mater as well as worker node
1vagrant@master:~$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y kubelet kubeadm kubectl
Step 9 - Enable and Start kubelet
Alright now we have installed the kubernetes, now we need to enable the kubelet support for both master as well worker node
1vagrant@master ~]$ sudo systemctl enable kubelet 2 3vagrant@master ~]$ sudo systemctl start kubelet
Step 10 - Initialize the kubernetes cluster
Okay now we have reach to point where we have done all the prerequisite for initializing the kubernetes cluster.
Let’s run the kubernetes initialization command on only on master
1vagrant@master ~]$ sudo kubeadm init --apiserver-advertise-address=220.127.116.11 --pod-network-cidr=10.244.0.0/16
Note down kubeadm join command which we are going to use from worker node to join the master node using token.
1sudo kubeadm join 18.104.22.168:6443 --token g2bsw7.5xr3bqc21eqyc6r7 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:39b2b0608b9300b3342a8d0a0e9204c8fc74d45b008043a810f94e4f1fb8861f
Step 11 - Move kube config file to current user (only run on master)
To interact with the kubernetes cluster and to user kubectl command, we need to have the kube config file with us.
Use the following command to get the kube config file and put it under working directory.
1vagrant@master ~]$ mkdir -p $HOME/.kube 2vagrant@master ~]$ sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config 3vagrant@master ~]$ sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
Step 12 - Apply CNI from kube-flannel.yml(only run on master)
After the master of the cluster is ready to handle jobs and the services are running, for the purpose of making containers accessible to each other through networking, we need to set up the network for container communication.
Get the CNI(container network interface) configuration from flannel
1vagrant@master ~]$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
Note - But since we are working on the VMs so we need to check our Ethernet interfaces first.
Look out for the Ethernet i.e. eth1 which has a ip address 22.214.171.124(this is the ip address which we used in vagrant file)
1vagrant@master ~]$ ip a s
11: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> 22: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000 3 link/ether 08:00:27:bb:14:75 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 4 inet 10.0.2.15 53: eth1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc fq_codel state UP group default qlen 1000 6 link/ether 08:00:27:fb:48:77 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 7 inet 126.96.36.199 84: docker0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP>
Now we need to add the extra args for eth1 in kube-flannel.yml
1vagrant@master ~]$ vi kube-flannel.yml
Searche for - “flanneld”
In the args section add : - -iface=eth1
1- --iface=eth1 2 args: 3 - --ip-masq 4 - --kube-subnet-mgr 5 - --iface=eth1
Apply the flannel configuration
1vagrant@master:~$ kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml
1podsecuritypolicy.policy/psp.flannel.unprivileged created 2clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created 3clusterrolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/flannel created 4serviceaccount/flannel created 5configmap/kube-flannel-cfg created 6daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-amd64 created 7daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm64 created 8daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-arm created 9daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-ppc64le created 10daemonset.apps/kube-flannel-ds-s390x created
Step 13 - Join worker nodes to master(only run on worker)
In the Step 10 we generated the token and kubeadm join command.
Now we need to use that join command from our worker node
1vagrant@worker:~$ sudo kubeadm join 188.8.131.52:6443 --token g2bsw7.5xr3bqc21eqyc6r7 --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:39b2b0608b9300b3342a8d0a0e9204c8fc74d45b008043a810f94e4f1fb8861f
1W0423 19:27:00.344480 18268 join.go:346] preflight] WARNING: JoinControlPane.controlPlane settings will be ignored when control-plane flag is not set. 2preflight] Running pre-flight checks 3 WARNING IsDockerSystemdCheck]: detected "cgroupfs" as the Docker cgroup driver. The recommended driver is "systemd". Please follow the guide at https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/cri/ 4preflight] Reading configuration from the cluster... 5preflight] FYI: You can look at this config file with 'kubectl -n kube-system get cm kubeadm-config -oyaml' 6kubelet-start] Downloading configuration for the kubelet from the "kubelet-config-1.18" ConfigMap in the kube-system namespace 7kubelet-start] Writing kubelet configuration to file "/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml" 8kubelet-start] Writing kubelet environment file with flags to file "/var/lib/kubelet/kubeadm-flags.env" 9kubelet-start] Starting the kubelet 10kubelet-start] Waiting for the kubelet to perform the TLS Bootstrap... 11 12This node has joined the cluster: 13* Certificate signing request was sent to apiserver and a response was received. 14* The Kubelet was informed of the new secure connection details. 15 16Run 'kubectl get nodes' on the control-plane to see this node join the cluster.
Step 14 - Check the nodes status(only run on master)
To check the status of the nodes use
1vagrant@master ~]$ kubectl get nodes
1NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION 2master Ready master 26m v1.18.2 3worker Ready <none> 63s v1.18.2
So this was our beginner tutorial which involves around - 14 Steps to Install kubernetes on Ubuntu 18.04 and 16.04.
With that we can conclude what we have achieved -
- Congratulations we have successfully installed kubernetes on Ubuntu 18.04
- After installing kubernetes we are successfully join the worker nodes with master.